Tafseer of Sūrah al-Hujuraat (The Dwellings)
Explanation by
Shaykh Abdullaah Abdur-Rahmaan Al-Ghudyaan حفظه الله

CLASS #5 - Delivered on April 7th, 2007

The Shaykh حفظه الله began in the Name of Allaah and after praising Allaah سبحانه و تعالى and sending the salaat and salaam upon our Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم, his family members and all his companions. He then reviewed the statements from our last class.

Aayaat 11-13

The Shaykh حفظه الله then read the aayaat to be covered during the lesson. They are aayaat 11-13. They deal with the mannerisms between the Muslims.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا يَسْخَرْ قَومٌ مِّن قَوْمٍ عَسَى أَن يَكُونُوا خَيْراً مِّنْهُمْ وَلَا نِسَاء مِّن نِّسَاء عَسَى أَن يَكُنَّ خَيْراً مِّنْهُنَّ وَلَا تَلْمِزُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ وَلَا تَنَابَزُوا بِالْأَلْقَابِ بِئْسَ الاِسْمُ الْفُسُوقُ بَعْدَ الْإِيمَانِ وَمَن لَّمْ يَتُبْ فَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ {11}يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اجْتَنِبُوا كَثِيراً مِّنَ الظَّنِّ إِنَّ بَعْضَ الظَّنِّ إِثْمٌ وَلَا تَجَسَّسُوا وَلَا يَغْتَب بَّعْضُكُم بَعْضاً أَيُحِبُّ أَحَدُكُمْ أَن يَأْكُلَ لَحْمَ أَخِيهِ مَيْتاً فَكَرِهْتُمُوهُ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَوَّابٌ رَّحِيمٌ {12} يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ وَأُنثَى وَجَعَلْنَاكُمْ شُعُوباً وَقَبَائِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوا إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ {13}ـ

[49:11] O you who believe! Let not a group scoff at another group, it may be that the latter are better than the former. Nor let (some) women scoff at other women, it may be that the latter are better than the former. Nor defame one another, nor insult one another by nicknames. How bad is it to insult one's brother after having Faith [i.e. to call your Muslim brother (a faithful believer) as: "O sinner", or "O wicked"]. And whosoever does not repent, then such are indeed Zâlimûn (wrong doers).

[49:12] O you who believe! Avoid much suspicion; indeed some suspicions are sins. And spy not, neither backbite one another. Would one of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? You would hate it (so hate backbiting). And fear Allâh. Verily, Allâh is the One Who forgives and accepts repentance, Most Merciful.

[49:13] O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes that you may know one another. Verily, the most honourable of you with Allâh is that (believer) who has At-Taqwâ [i.e. he is one of the Muttaqûn (the pious. See V.2:2)]. Verily, Allâh is All-Knowing, Well-Acquainted (with all things).

Explanation of the Aayaat

Ahkaam/Regulations to be derived from the Aayaat

  1. Allaah سبحانه و تعالى has disallowed 3 things in that particular verse: (i) scoffing at, or making fun of (ii) jesting and (iii) using ill offensive names mutually amongst the Muslims.

    Allaah سبحانه و تعالى also pointed out that this is a quality of corruption and those people who involve themselves in these types of pastimes are oppressive to themselves. The consequence of the oppression is punishment unless the individual turns in repentance to Allaah. The Shaykh said that the reason given in the verse is that ‘the person who is being made fun of, may be better that the one who is making the fun, or the one jesting at him’ i.e. the one who is criticized and scorned may be better that the one who is doing it.

    There are some exceptions to this rule when it comes to using nicknames that may be somewhat unacceptable. That is, if the person is one who is well known by these names e.g. a person may be known as ‘the lame’, ‘the person who is blind in one eye’ or ‘the person who is bow legged’. If the person is familiar by these particular names or he is know more by those names than by any other, or it is a means of distinguishing from others, then there is nothing wrong. There were certain favorable names that were given to some of the Companions; for example:
    • الصديق - Abu Bakr was called ‘the truthful’,
    • الفاروق - ‘Umar was called ‘The one who distinguishes’,
    • ذو نورين - ‘Uthmaan was given the name of ‘The possessor of two lights’,
    • ذي شهادتين - Khuzaymah was given ‘The one who possesses the two Shahaadahs.’,
    • ذي شمالين – Abu Hurayrah was called ‘The possessor of two left hands’
    • ذي اليدين – al-Khirbaaq bin ‘Amr was given the name of ‘The possessor of two hands’,
    • أسد الله – Hamzah was called ‘The Lion of Allaah’
    • سيف الله – Khaalid ibn Waleed was given the name ‘Saifallaah’ or ‘The Sword of Allaah’.

    All these names are praiseworthy and not blameworthy names. They are exceptions and are not reprehensible in our Deen. We know that it is also an encouragement to give good names to the Muslim individuals in the community. One of the narrations that we have is that ‘One of the rights of a Muslim is that he should have a favorable name.’[1] ‘Umar رضي الله عنه used to say: “Popularise the kunya.”[2] i.e. the name where you say ‘father of’. We also have some other nicknames that were popular:
    • Abu Bakr was called Attique and as-Siddeeq,
    • ‘Umar was called Faarooq which means ‘to distinguish’,
    • Khaalid as mentioned previously was called ‘The Sword of Allaah’.
    These types of names continue to be used not only amongst the Arabs but also amongst those who were non-Arabs, without any type of criticism from amongst the previous nations, and those in the time of Islaam.
  2. Allaah سبحانه و تعالى in the ayah also forbade or made certain things haraam:
    a. to have a bad opinion or suspicion about the people of good character;
    b. that you spy on these people, and
    c. backbiting.
    These have all been prohibited by Allaah سبحانه و تعالى.

    There are different types of dhann (ظن - thought) that people should have. They are:

    1. Dhann which is waajib i.e. compulsory for one to have. One must have good thoughts about Allaah سبحانه و تعالى and it is compulsory to have a good opinion about the Believers. There is a hadeeth Qudsi collected by both Bukhaaree, Muslims, at-Tirmidhee, an-Nasaa’ee and ibn Maajah from Abi Hurayrah رضي الله عنه which states that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم mentioned that: “Allaah the exalted said: ‘I am as my slaves thinks about Me’.”[3] There is another narration from Ahmad, Muslim and Abu Daawood and Ibn Maajah from Jaabir who said that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم mentioned that “No one should die unless he has a good opinion about Allaah سبحانه و تعالى.” [4] And in another narration from Abi Hurayrah رضي الله عنه collected by Abu Daawood and al-Haakim, “Having good thoughts is a part of perfecting one’s ebaadah (worship)”[5]

      Also, amongst those that we should have good opinions about are those people who have been determined as just or ‘udool (عدول) and accepting their statements when it has to do with judgments; and likewise when trying to determine the direction of the Qiblah; and also in dealing with those things in the Penal code where certain things have to be specified where there is no clear specification in the Sharee’ah (Legislation). We should have a good opinion about all these people and accept their statements.
    2. The second type of Dhann is Dhannun Madhmuumun or Haraamum (ظن مذموم/حرام) i.e. dhann which is haraam – prohibited. For example, bad thoughts of Allaah سبحانه و تعالى and also about upright and just people, and with the Muslims whose condition is unknown but they appear to be upright and just. The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “Indeed Allaah سبحانه و تعالى has made sacred with respect to the Muslim his blood and honor and no bad thoughts should be directed towards him”[6] This is from Qurtobi and al-Aloosi. Also, Ayesha رضي الله عنها mentioned that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “One who has bad opinions (about those individuals) is like one who has a bad opinion about Allaah." [7]

      Allaah سبحانه و تعالى said: ‘Avoid much suspicion.’ Abu Daawood narrates from Safiyyah رضي الله عنها that “While Allah's Apostle was in I’tikaaf, I called on him at night and having had a talk with him, I got up to depart. He also got up to accompany me to my dwelling place, which was then in the house of Usama bin Zaid. Two Ansari men passed by, and when they saw the Prophet they hastened away. The Prophet said (to them). "Don't hurry! It is Safiyyah, the daughter of Huyay (i.e. my wife)." They said, "Glorified be Allah! O Allah's Apostle! (How dare we suspect you?)" He said, "Shaytaan circulates in the human mind as blood circulates in it, and I was afraid that Shaytaan might throw an evil thought (or something) into your hearts.”[8]

      As for the individual who openly does corrupt things and who does not have any regard for his own honour, then he should not expect people to have regard for him. It is compulsory on the Muslim to guard himself from those places and circles which are going to be blameworthy. The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “May Allaah have Mercy on the person who guards his honour.”[9]
    3. Dhann manduubun ilayhi (ظن مندوب إليه). This is a type of dhann which is recommended. For example, to have a good opinion about the Muslim who is outwardly upright and to have a bad opinion of an individual who is outwardly displaying corruption. This type of dhann that one has for another is based on what the person shows. There is a narration reported by at-Tabaraani in his Awsat that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “Protect yourself from the people having bad opinion about you.”[10] The Shaykh حفظه الله mentioned that this particular narration is not sound, but the understanding of it is correct.
    4. Dhann mubaah (ظن مباح). This type of dhann is permissible. It has to do with the deduction of legal legislation from the evidences expressed in detail in the Qur’aan and the Sunnah, which is done based on ijtihaad. This type of dhann which is acceptable, is also the case when a person works with that which is more obvious in the acts of worship. For example, he is praying and he forgets whether he has prayed three of four (raka’aat), then he works with that which is more certain. Otherwise, the principle which the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم mentioned in the hadeeth is that: “You leave that which makes you doubt, for that which does not make you doubt.”[11]
  3. Spying (tajassus – تجسس)
    Allaah سبحانه و تعالى after commanding with not having bad suspicion, He سبحانه و تعالى said “do not spy on one another.” This is one of the major sins. It is searching out that which is secret; or listening to the conversation of a people whilst they dislike that you do so – this is tahassus (تحسس) which is different from tajassus. Sometimes tahassus is used in a favourable manner, for example when Yaqoob said to his sons “and enquire about Yusuf and his brother”.[12] Their word used is tahassus – enquire about Yusuf and his brothers and this was done in a favorable way.

    The other thing which was mentioned is ‘backbiting’. It is also one of the things which is prohibited i.e. haraam and the person who does it has to repent. According to some of the People of Knowledge he has to go and seek pardon from the person he was speaking about. There is some difference amongst the People of Knowledge about seeking pardon from the one spoken about.

    There is difference between gheebah (غيبة), ifk (إفك) and buhtaan (بهتان). Gheebah is when you speak about something within your brother which is unfavorable. Ifk is when you speak about something about him which reached you. Buhtaan is when you speak about something which is not in his character whatsoever i.e. it is fabricated. All these things are prohibited. Allaah سبحانه و تعالى in this ayah dissuades the Believers from this and encourages them to stay away from the act of backbiting by striking a similitude which is very reprehensible when He likens it to ‘eating the flesh of your dead brother’.

    With regard to backbiting the People of Knowledge mention a number of things or circumstances when this act is not considered something which is bad if there is a legal purpose behind it. There are six circumstances which were mentioned by the People of Knowledge. For example:

    1. A person who has to complain about some type of oppression which has happened to him. In order to do so, he has to mention the individual who is oppressing him so that the oppression might be removed. There is a narration which has collected by al-Bukhaaree, at-Tirmidhee and others from Abi Hurayrah where the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم would have said about this type of individual: “Leave him alone because the person who has a right also has a right to express himself.”[13] Also, because of the hadeeth: “the lack of payment by the rich person is an oppression”[14] and “a person who has the ability to pay but stays away from doing so, his honor is at stake and he deserves punishment.”[15]
    2. Seeking help to change something that is bad. Allaah سبحانه و تعالى mentions in the Qur’aan:
      لاَّ يُحِبُّ اللَّهُ الْجَهْرَ بِالسُّوءِ مِنَ الْقَوْلِ إِلاَّ مَن ظُلِمَ
      {Allâh does not like that the evil should be uttered in public except by him who has been wronged…} [an-Nisaa 4:148]

      So the person who is seeking help to remove harm, then this is permissible.
    3. When a person seeks a religious ruling saying that “such and such an individual has oppressed me.” This is also an occasion when you may say something bad about an individual regarding his character. This is so because of the narration collected by al-Bukhaaree, Muslim and others from Aa’ishaa رضي الله عنها where she said that the wife of Abu Sufyaan came to the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم and said: ‘Abu Sufyaan is a miserly person. He does not give me what is sufficient for me and my child except what I take without his permission.’ The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said to her ‘Take what is sufficient for you.’[16] Therefore, in this case when making a religious ruling it is also permissible.
    4. When you are warning about someone who is openly corrupt. For example, a person who is openly drinking alcohol. There is a narration collected by at-Tabaraani and ibn Hibbaan from Bahz ibn Hakeem and others where it is reported that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “Mention the corrupt person according to what he has in himself so that the people may be aware of who he is.”[17] Also, in another narration in Baihaqee from Anas “that he has removed the modesty and question from himself concerning the people.”[18] This Shaykh حفظه الله said that all these narrations are da’eef (weak).
    5. When you are warning about widespread/general evil (شرعام) like disparaging the witnesses, the narrators, the authors and those who give fataawa whilst they are not deserving of this position – you mention what this person is actually about; also the person who is going to propose i.e. the lady who is going to consider the proposal should know that the individual is such and such.
    6. Also for ta’reefwhen one is well-known by a particular nickname if it is not possible to perceive who it is by other that this name, such as ‘the lame one’ or ‘the person who is blind’. If this is the case, then it is permissible with the purpose of letting the people know who we are speaking about because of the popularity of that name for the individual.

    Al-Qaraafee mentioned some other circumstances when the person is allowed to do these things and he categorizes them differently. For example, when giving advice to people who are going to be witnesses in a given circumstance in a legal matter, or regarding one who openly displays corruption or one who is openly displaying innovation; and when this is necessary to be done and it is called upon by those in charge of the affairs of the Muslim.
  4. Concerning the third verse Allaah سبحانه و تعالى mentions three matters: 1) equality 2) getting to know one another and 3) the characteristics of taqwaa.

    He mentioned that the people are just like the teeth in a comb in terms of equality. They are from one father and one mother and this is in respect of the legal rights and obligations which they should all have. This is the foundation of what real Democracy is supposed to be about. Allaah سبحانه و تعالى clarified that He created them from a male and female. If He wanted He could have created them without the both of them like the way that Aadam عليه السلام was created, or without there being a father as in the case of Eesah عليه السلام, or without a female like the creation of Hawaa.

    Allaah سبحانه و تعالى created us with the purpose of knowing one another and giving one another mutual assistance; not that we should turn our backs to one another or make fun of one another or backbite one another as this only leads to mutual hatred and enmity and it opposes the intent with which the Sharee’ah came i.e. it shows opposition to the Islaamic Legislation.

    At-taqwaa is in fact the scale of nobility between the people. It is with this that the people are considered noble or otherwise. The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم once mentioned in a narration collected by at-Tirmidhee that ‘The hasab (value, worth) is by wealth and nobility is with taqwaa.’[19] And in another hadeeth: “Whoever wants to be the most noble of the people then have taqwaa of Allaah.”[20] And, from Abi Hurayrah رضي الله عنه the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم mentioned that “Allaah سبحانه و تعالى will say on Yawmul Qiyaamah ‘I have made relationship (lineage) and you have made relationship and I have made the most noble amongst you the one who has the most taqwaa, but you refuse to stop saying ‘Fulaan ibn Fulaan is better than Fulaan ibn Fulaan.’ So today I raise my relationship and lower your relationship.”” [21] The Shaykh mentioned that taqwaa is to do what Allaah سبحانه و تعالى commands and to stay away from all that He forbids. This is true taqwaa. There is a narration where at-Tabaraani mentions from Abi Hurayrah that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “My Awliyaa’ on Yawmul Qiyaamah are those with taqwaa even if there are those closer in lineage; so let not the people come to me with their deeds whilst you bring the Dunyaa carrying it on your necks; then you call ‘O Muhammad’ so I will say ‘No’. He صلى الله عليه و سلم indicated with his hands to show that they would be distinguished and the ones who would be the most favored are those with taqwaa.”[22]

Reason for Revelation

  • Ayah 11
    A group of people from Bani Tameem came and started to make fun of the poor Companions that were with the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم. Amongst them were Ammaar, Khabbaab, Ibn Fuhayrah, Bilaal, Suhayb, Salamaan al-Faarisi, Saalim the freed servant of Abi Hudayfah and other than them. They were making fun of their poor state and it was on this occasion that this verse was revealed. Mujaahid mentioned that it was the rich making fun of the poor.

    There is another occasion for revelation where it is said that the ayah was revealed concerning Thaabit ibn Qays ibn Shammaas when someone made fun of him because of his mother.

    It is said that it was also revealed regarding Ikrimah the son of Abi Jahal when the Muslims saw him when he came to Madinah and they said ‘the son of Fir’aun of this Ummah’ and the ayah was revealed criticising that statement of theirs.

    The Shaykh حفظه الله reminded that there is nothing wrong with having a number of reasons for the revelation for a given ayah and it is possible that the ayah was revealed in response to all these things. One of the Principles of the Science of Tafseer – explanation of the Qur’aan, is that the lessons are to be taken from the general expression of the ayah and not the specific occasion of revelation. The same principle is used for explaining hadeeth and it is also one of the Principles used in Usool al-Fiqh.

    Regarding the statement ‘Nor let (some) women scoff at other women’ Ibn Abbaas رضي الله عنهما said that “Safiyyah bint Huyay ibn Akhtab came to the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم and said: “O Messenger of Allaah indeed the women are criticizing me and they say ‘O Jewish woman, daughter of two Jews’.” The Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “Didn’t you say that verily Haaroon is my father and my paternal uncle is Moosa and my husband is Muhammad?”[23] So Allaah سبحانه و تعالى revealed this ayah.

    Regarding the reason for revelation of Allaah’s سبحانه و تعالى statement: ‘nor insult one another by nicknames’, the four narrators of the Sunan report from Abi Jubayrah ibn Dahhaak who said that “there was a man with us who had two names or three and he was called by some of them but perhaps he disliked it. So the ayah was revealed: ‘nor insult one another by nicknames’.” [24] At-Tirmidhi says that this hadeeth is Hasan and Haakim and other than him narrate a hadeeth from Abi Jubayrah also, who said “There were alqaab (nicknames) in Jaahiliyyah so the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم called a man from amongst them by his laqab (nickname) and it was said to him صلى الله عليه و سلم ‘O Messenger of Allaah indeed he dislikes it’.”[25] So Allaah سبحانه و تعالى revealed ‘nor insult one another by nicknames’. In the wording of Imaam Ahmad from Abi Jubayrah who said: “This ayah was revealed about us, Bani Salimah ‘nor insult one another by nicknames’ When the Messenger of Allaah migrated to Al-Madinah, every man among us had two or three nicknames. When the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم called a man by one of these nicknames, people would say, ‘O Allaah's Messenger! He hates that nickname.’ Then this Ayah, ‘nor insult one another by nicknames’ was revealed.”[26]
  • Ayah 12
    The reason for revelation of His Speech سبحانه و تعالى ‘neither backbite one another’ as reported by al-Mundhiree from Ibn Jurayj that he said: “This was revealed concerning Salmaan al-Faarisee, that he ate and then fell asleep and someone from amongst them mentioned his manners of eating and the way he slept and because of this, the particular ayah was revealed.”[27]
  • Ayah 13
    The reason for revelation of His Speech سبحانه و تعالى ‘O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes that you may know one another. Verily, the most honourable of you with Allaah is that (believer) who has At-Taqwaa’ as reported by Abi Haakim from Ibn Abi Mulaykah who said: “In the opening of Makkah, Bilaal went on top of the Ka’bah to call the adhaan and some of the people said ‘is this black slave calling the adhaan on top of the Ka’bah?’ Some of them said ‘If Allaah سبحانه و تعالى dislikes something He can change it.’ Or ‘If Allaah wants a thing He changes it’.”[28] So the ayah was revealed on this occasion so that the people should not make this type of fun of one another as Allaah created them from a single male and female and made them into tribes. Then Allaah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم called them and reprimanded them for having done so.

    Ibn Asaakirin said in his book Al-Mubhamaat that Abu Bakr ibn Abi Daawood also mentions in his tafseer concerning Abi Hind that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم once told some of the Arabs to marry their people to him, and they responded ‘so we should marry those people who are like our freed slaves from one of us?’[29] On this occasion the verse was revealed. Az-Zuhri said that it was revealed specifically concerning Abi Hind. The Shaykh حفظه الله then said that as mentioned before, there is nothing wrong with having more than one reason for revelation, and this is quite common.

Questions and Answers

1. Question: My father openly sins, such as drinking alcohol and having girlfriends. He rejects the Sunnah and I fear he will mislead my sister and other family members. Should I warn against him, or if I warn against him would that be considered gheebah (backbiting)?
Answer: Yes, it is compulsory to warn against him and it is not considered backbiting. He حفظه الله said that he mentioned previously that there are 6 permissible cases for speaking about an individual and this is one of those cases. Allaah سبحانه و تعالى mentions in the Qur’aan:
لا تَجِدُ قَوْماً يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ يُوَادُّونَ مَنْ حَادَّ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَلَوْ كَانُوا آبَاءهُمْ أَوْ أَبْنَاءهُمْ أَوْ إِخْوَانَهُمْ أَوْ عَشِيرَتَهُمْ
{You (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم will not find any people who believe in Allaah and the Last Day, making friendship with those who oppose Allâh and His Messenger (Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم), even though they were their fathers or their sons or their brothers or their kindred (people)...} [al-Mujaadilah 58:22]

2. Question: What are the conditions of tawbah (repentance) from gheebah (backbiting)?
Answer: The conditions of tawbah for backbiting are:
1. Feel sadness and some form of remorse for what was done.
2. Give it up.
3. Make up your mind never to repeat that act again
4. Try to seek forgiveness from the one who was backbitten if this is possible. However, if this will cause a greater confusion or a confusion similar to the wrong that was done, then it is better to stay away from that and instead supplicate for him until you feel that you have given him his due for what you have done wrongly to him.

3. Question: A sister asks: Is it permissible for me to expose my head or hair in front of my father-in-law who is not a Muslim.
Answer:[indent]No, it is not permissible for her to expose her hair in front of her father-in-law whether he is Muslim or not; and if he is kaafir it is more severe. Allaah سبحانه و تعالى says:
وَقُل لِّلْمُؤْمِنَاتِ يَغْضُضْنَ مِنْ أَبْصَارِهِنَّ وَيَحْفَظْنَ فُرُوجَهُنَّ وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَلْيَضْرِبْنَ بِخُمُرِهِنَّ عَلَى جُيُوبِهِنَّ وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا لِبُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ آبَائِهِنَّ أَوْ آبَاء بُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ أَبْنَائِهِنَّ أَوْ أَبْنَاء بُعُولَتِهِنَّ
{And tell the believing women to lower their gaze (from looking at forbidden things), and protect their private parts (from illegal sexual acts) and not to show off their adornment except that which is apparent (like both eyes for necessity to see the way, or outer palms of hands or one eye or dress like veil, gloves, head cover, apron), and to draw their veils all over Juyûbihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms) and not to reveal their adornment except to their husbands, or their fathers, or their husband's fathers, or their sons, or their husband's sons…} [an-Noor 24:31]

Note: The translator attempted to clarify with the Shaykh حفظه الله where the father-in-law who is Muslim is allowed to see the woman’s hair based on the part of the ayah he quoted that mentioned: ‘or their husband's fathers’. However it seems that the Shaykh was no longer present on the telephone at that time. And Allaah knows best.

References and Notes

[1] Reference pending.

[2] Reference pending.

[3] Reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, Kitaab at-Tawheed (#7066, #6970) from Abi Hurayrah رضي الله عنه. Also found in Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab at-Taubah (#2675) and elsewhere.
قال الله: أنا عند ظن عبدي بي
[4] Reported in Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab al-Jannah wa Sifah Na’eemihaa wa Ahlihaa (#2877). Also reported by Ahmad, Abu Daawood and Ibn Maajah from Jaabir.
لا يموتن أحدكم إلا وهو يحسن الظن بالله عز وجل

[5] Reported in Sunan Abi Daawood, 4/298 (#4993). Shaykh al-Albaanee رحمه الله says with a Da’eef isnaad in Da’eef al-Jaami’ (#2719). Also Reported by Haakim.
حسن الظن من حسن العبادة

[6] Reference Pending.

[7] Reference Pending.

[8] Reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, Kitaab Badul-Khalq (#3107) and in Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab as-Salaam (#2175). Also reported in Sunan Abi Daawood 2/333 (#2470) and 4/298 (#4994) with a similar wording. Shaykh al-Albaanee رحمه الله says both are Saheeh.
كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم معتكفا فأتيته أزوره ليلا، فحدثته ثم قمت فانقلبت، فقام معي ليقلبني، وكان مسكنها في دار أسامة بن زيد، فمر رجلان من الأنصار، فلما رأيا النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أسرعا، فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: (على رسلكما، إنها صفية بنت حيي). فقالا: سبحان الله يا رسول الله، قال: (إن الشيطان يجري من الإنسان مجرى الدم، وإني خشيت أن يقذف في قلوبكما سوءا، أو قال: شيئا.)

[9] Reference Pending.

[10] With the following wording Shaykh al-Albaanee رحمه الله says Da’eef Jiddan in Silsilah ad-Da’eefah 3/291 (#1151). See also Da’eef al-Jaami (#2779).
الحزم سوء الظن

[11] Reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree as part of a hadeeth, Kitaab al-Buyoo’ (Chapter #39).
دع ما يريبك إلى ما لا يريبك

[12] Yusuf 12:87
فَتَحَسَّسُواْ مِن يُوسُفَ وَأَخِيهِ
{… and enquire about Yûsuf (Joseph) and his brother…”}

[13] Reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, كتاب الاستقراض وأداء الديون والحجر والتفليس (The Book of Loans, Loan Payment, Freezing Assets and Bankruptcy #2271) also (#2260, #2465, #2467) and in Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab al-Musaaqaah wal-Muzaara’ah (#1601)
أتى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم رجل يتقاضاه فأغلظ له، فهم به أصحابه، فقال: (دعوه، فإن لصاحب الحق مقالا.)

[14] Reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, كتاب الاستقراض وأداء الديون والحجر والتفليس (The Book of Loans, Loan Payment, Freezing Assets and Bankruptcy as a chapter heading #12) and as part of hadeeth (#2270, #2166, #2167). Also reported in Sunan Abi Daawood 3/247 (#3345) and Shaykh al-Albaanee رحمه الله says with a Saheeh isnaad.
مطل الغني ظلم

[15] Reported in Sunan Abi Daawood, 3/313 (#3628). Shaykh al-Albaanee رحمه الله says with a Hasan isnaad.
لي الواجد يحل عرضه وعقوبته

[16] Reported with the following wording in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, Kitaab an-Nafaqaat (#5049) and with a similar wording in (#5055). Also narrated in Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab al-Aqdiyyah (#1714).
أن هند بنت عتبة قالت: يا رسول الله، إن أبا سفيان رجل شحيح، وليس يعطيني ما يكفيني وولدي إلا ما أخذت منه، وهو لا يعلم، فقال: (خذي ما يكفيك وولدك بالمعروف.)

[17] Reported with the following wording by al-Haakim. Shaykh al-Albaanee رحمه الله says Da’eef in Da’eef al-Jaami (#104).
اذكروا الفاجر بما فيه يحذره الناس

[18] Reported in Sunan al-Baihaqee. With the following wording, Shaykh al-Albaanee رحمه الله says Da’eef Jiddan in Silsilah ad-Da’eefah 2/54 (#585). See also Da’eef al-Jaami (#5483).
من ألقى جلباب الحياء فلا غيبة له

[19] Reported in Jaami’ at-Tirmidhee 5/390 (#3271). Shaykh al-Albaanee رحمه الله says Hasan Saheeh Ghareeb. Also reported in Sunan Ibn Maajah 2/1410 (#4219) and Shaykh al-Albaanee رحمه الله says with a Saheeh Sanad. See also Saheeh al-Jaami (#3178).
الحسب المال والكرم التقوى

[20] Reference Pending

[21] Reported with the following wording Shaykh al-Albaanee رحمه الله says it is Da’eef Jiddan in Da’eef at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb Vol. 2 (#1763). This wording is not exactly what the Shaykh حفظه الله mentioned.
إذا كان يوم القيامة أمر الله مناديا ينادي ألا إني جعلت نسبا وجعلتم نسبا فجعلت أكرمكم أتقاكم فأبيتم إلا أن تقولوا فلان بن فلان خير من فلان بن فلان فاليوم أرفع نسبي وأضع نسبكم

[22] Reported with the following wording in Adab al-Mufrad 1/309 (#897). Shaykh al-Albaanee رحمه الله says Hasan.
إن أوليائي يوم القيامة المتقون وان كان نسب أقرب من نسب فلا يأتيني الناس بالأعمال وتأتون بالدنيا تحملونها على رقابكم فتقولون يا محمد فأقول هكذا وهكذا لا وأعرض في كلا عطفيه

[23] Reference Pending.
إن النساء يعيرنني و يقلن لي يا يهودية بنت يهوديين فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم هل لا قلت إن أبي هارون و إن عمي موسى و إن زوجي محمد

[24] Reported with the following wording in Jaami’ at-Tirmidhee 5/388 (#3268). Shaykh al-Albaanee رحمه الله says Hasan Saheeh.
كان الرجل منا يكون له الإسمين والثلاثة فيدعى ببعضها فعسى أن يكره قال فنزلت { ولا تنابزوا بالألقاب }

[25] Reference Pending.
كانت الألقاب في الجاهلية فدعى النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم رجل منهم بلقبه فقيل له يا رسول الله إنه يكرهه

[26] Reported in Musnad Imaam Ahmad, Vol. 4 (#18134).
فينا نزلت في بني سلمة ولا تنابزوا بالألقاب قال قدم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم المدينة وليس منا رجل إلا وله اسمان أو ثلاثة فكان إذا دعي أحد منهم باسم من تلك الأسماء قالوا يا رسول الله إنه يغضب من هذا قال فنزلت {ولا تنابزوا بالألقاب}

[27] Reference Pending.

[28] Reference Pending.