Tafseer of Sūrah al-Hujuraat (The Dwellings)
 
Explanation by
Shaykh Abdullaah Abdur-Rahmaan Al-Ghudyaan حفظه الله

 
CLASS #3 - Delivered on February 3rd, 2007


The Shaykh حفظه الله began in the Name of Allaah and after praising Allaah سبحانه و تعالى and sending the salaat and salaam upon our Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم, his family members and all his Companions, he proceeded:

Indeed the subject of the lesson will be two (2) aayaat from Surah al-Hujuraat, aayaat 9-10. The subject of these two aayaat deals with:
i. Explaining the means of stopping disputes when they occur in the Muslim Society.
ii. The ruling on the bughaat (tyrants, oppressive ones) that transgress against the Islaamic government.


Aayaat 9-10

The Shaykh حفظه الله then read the aayaat to be covered during the lesson. They are aayaat 9-10.

Quote:
وَإِن طَائِفَتَانِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ اقْتَتَلُوا فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُمَا فَإِن بَغَتْ إِحْدَاهُمَا عَلَى الْأُخْرَى فَقَاتِلُوا الَّتِي تَبْغِي حَتَّى تَفِيءَ إِلَى أَمْرِ اللَّهِ فَإِن فَاءتْ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُمَا بِالْعَدْلِ وَأَقْسِطُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ {9} إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ {10}ـ

[49:09] And if two parties (or groups) among the believers fall to fighting, then make peace between them both. But if one of them outrages against the other, then fight you (all) against the one which outrages till it complies with the Command of Allâh. Then if it complies, then make reconciliation between them justly, and be equitable. Verily, Allâh loves those who are the equitable.

[49:10] The believers are nothing else than brothers (in Islâmic religion). So make reconciliation between your brothers, and fear Allâh that you may receive mercy.



Explanation of the Aayaat

1. Linguistic Meanings of words used in the aayaat:
 
  • طَائِفَتَانِ – Two groups, the singular is طائفة and means a group of individuals.
  • اقْتَتَلُوا – If they fight amongst themselves. The plural is used even though it refers to two groups. This is because the verb is expressed in the collective form as it refers to a group of individuals, and the smallest collective amount (in the Arabic language) is two. This is why the plural form of the verb is used.
  • فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُمَا – This means to advise them both, and to prevent them by advising them or using some method of correction that will cause them to desist.
  • بَغَتْ – This refers to transgressing or overstepping the limits that have been legislated by Allaah. This is from injustice and it is oppression.
  • تَفِيءَ إِلَى أَمْرِ اللَّهِ Tafeea (تَفِيءَ) means to return, to return to the Command of Allaah i.e. to the haqq (truth).
  • فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُمَا بِالْعَدْلِ – Bring about the correction between them both with justice. This means to remove the oppression that has been experienced between the two groups.
  • وَأَقْسِطُوا Qist (قِسْط) means to deal justly amongst the groups involved in the dispute. The word qist is one of those words used for both justice and oppression, as comes in some of the aayaat of the Qur’aan. What is meant in this ayah is that justice should be used in removing what is being experienced (of transgression).
  • إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ – Allaah سبحانه و تعالى praises those that act in this way (justly) by saying that “Allaah loves those who act justly.”
  • إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ – This refers to being brothers in the Deen, ‘Aqeedah and Eemaan. This ultimately results in their having a perpetual life of happiness. This brotherhood in the Deen is stronger than brotherhood due to lineage/kinship (blood-ties) and friendship.
  • فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ – “Make peace between your brothers.” The dual form is used here (for brothers) for the same reason previously mentioned i.e. it is the smallest collective form in the Arabic language. The phrase starts by mentioning between ‘two brothers’ but it indicates that whether it is two or more, this should be done. They Shaykh حفظه الله mentioned that in some recitations it does not mention only two brothers, but also mentions the plural form for ‘brother’.
  • وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ – Allaah سبحانه و تعالى requires the Believers to have taqwa in order to receive the Mercy that He intends for them.
 
 
2. Reason for Revelation:
 
Ayah 9
One of the occasions of revelation is based on a narration from Ahmad, Bukhaaree, Muslim, Ibn Jareer and others from Anas ibn Maalik رضي الله عنه that: “It was said to the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم "Would that you see `Abdullah bin Ubai." So, the Prophet went to him, riding a donkey, and the Muslims accompanied him, walking on salty barren land. When the Prophet reached `Abdullah bin Ubai, the latter said, "Keep away from me! By Allah, the bad smell of your donkey’s urine has offended me." On that an Ansari man said (to `Abdullah), "By Allah! The smell of the urine of the donkey of Allah's Apostle is better than your smell." On that a man from `Abdullah's tribe got angry for `Abdullah's sake, and the two men abused each other which caused the friends of the two men to get angry, and the two groups started fighting with sticks, sandals and hands. We were informed that the following Divine Verse was revealed (in this concern):-- {And if two groups of Believers fall to fighting then, make peace between them.} (al-Hujuraat 49:9)”[1] A number of narrations have come concerning the reason for revelation but this is the most authentic discussed in the books.

From the Principles of Tafseer it is possible that there could be more than one reason for the occasion of revelation i.e. a number of things could have occurred, and one verse would have been revealed to deal with all the separate incidents.

Another Principle of Tafseer is that the lesson to be derived from the expression is general and not based on the specific occasion for revelation. [2]
 
 
3. Relation to the aayaat that preceded:

Allaah سبحانه و تعالى after warning the Believers from accepting information from a faasiq (corrupt individual) He سبحانه و تعالى explains what can result from this news from fitnah (trial), disputes and sometimes fighting. Then, Allaah سبحانه و تعالى commanded with reconciliation by peaceful means between the two disputing parties by giving advice, admonition, guidance and arbitration.

If one of the two parties transgresses upon the other i.e. they do not comply with the truce; then fight the oppressive transgressors. Then after that He warranted the command for reconciliation due to the ties of brotherhood between the two parties. Then He commanded the mediator and the sides of disputing parties with the taqwa of Allaah and obedience to His commands.
 
 
4. Meaning of the Aayaat:

Ayah 9
وَإِن طَائِفَتَانِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ اقْتَتَلُوا فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُمَا
{And if two parties (or groups) among the believers fall to fighting, then make peace between them both…} [al-Hujuraat 49:9]
  • That is, if two parties from the Muslims fall into fighting then it is compulsory on the Leaders of the Muslims to reconcile (between them) with the Text (Qur’aan and Sunnah), calling them to Allaah’s Legislation, and showing the way, and removing the shubhah (doubts) and the reasons for the differing.
  • The term used at the beginning of the ayah is word إنْ – ‘If’ which is an indication that it is not fitting that fighting occurs between the Muslims and if it occurs it is rare or infrequent.
  • The ones being addressed in the ayah are those in Authority (the Rulers) and the command is one of obligation.
  • Bukhaaree رحمه الله and other than him infer from this, that sins if they are made great do not expel a Muslim from having eemaan (he is still considered a Muslim), thus differing from the Mu’tazilah and the Khawaarij who say that one who commits a major sin is a Kaafir (disbeliever) and is in the Fire.
  • It is affirmed in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree from Abi Bakr رضي الله عنه that: “the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said when he addressed the people one day whilst Hasan ibn ‘Ali رضي الله عنهما was with him on the minbar, and he would look at him one time and then look at the people another time, and he said ‘indeed this son of mine is a noble person and perhaps Allaah will cause by his hand peace between two great factions from the Muslims’.” [3] As the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “Allaah تعالى reconciled by him between the people of Sham and the people of Iraq after a long (period of) hostilities.” [4]
    فَإِن بَغَتْ إِحْدَاهُمَا عَلَى الْأُخْرَى فَقَاتِلُوا الَّتِي تَبْغِي حَتَّى تَفِيءَ إِلَى أَمْرِ اللَّهِ
    {…But if one of them outrages against the other, then fight you (all) against the one which outrages  till it complies with the Command of Allâh…} [al-Hujuraat 49:9]
  • If one group transgresses’ i.e. they exceed the limit and transgress on another group and they do not submit to what Allaah has legislated and to the advice. It is then binding upon all of the Muslims to struggle against the transgressing party until they return to Allaah’s Legislation and what He سبحانه و تعالى has commanded regarding refraining from transgression and fighting – with arms or other than it.
  • This may require that the Muslims take up arms against them or other than that from whatever will bring about the maslahah – the benefit to the whole group. If it can be achieved without taking up arms against them then this is best. However, if it will not be solved in this manner then arms will have to be used until they return to Allaah’s Legislation and there is peace.
    فَإِن فَاءتْ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُمَا بِالْعَدْلِ وَأَقْسِطُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ
    {…Then if it complies, then make reconciliation between them justly, and be equitable. Verily, Allâh loves those who are the equitable.} [al-Hujuraat 49:9]
  • If they return” this refers to the transgressing party returning from their transgression after fighting and they become contented with the Allaah’s Commands and His Legislation. It is upon the Muslims to act justly between the two parties in their judgment with what is in accordance with Allaah’s Legislation.
  • They must stop the oppressive group from their oppression until they leave their oppression and fulfil their obligation to the other party until there is no reviving of the fighting between them at another time.
  • Be just O you mediators in your judgment between them. Indeed Allaah loves the just ones and gives them the most splendid reward and this is by ordering with justice in all matters. Ibn Abi Haatim and Nasaa’ee reported from ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr رضي الله عنهما that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said “Indeed the Muqsiteen (those who are just) in the dunyaa are upon pulpits of peals in front of Allaah عز و جل for their justice in the dunyaa.”[5] And it is reported from Imaam Muslim and Nasaa’ee from ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr رضي الله عنهما that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said “The Muqsiteen (those who are just) with Allaah on Yawmul Qiyaamah (the Day of Judgment) are on pulpits of light on the right side of the ‘Arsh (Throne). Those who those who do justice in their rules, in matters relating to their families and in all that they have been placed in charge of.” [6]

Ayah 10
إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ
{The believers are nothing else than brothers (in Islâmic religion). So make reconciliation between your brothers, and fear Allâh that you may receive mercy.} [al-Hujuraat 49:10]
  • Indeed the Muslims are Believers” This verse means that only the Believers are brothers. This is a directive concerning brotherhood in the Deen i.e. they are brothers based on eemaan. It is necessary to reconcile between all disputing parties.
  • Additionally, in commanding with diligence in reconciling between brothers, Allaah commands with taqwa.
  • And the meaning of “And make reconciliation between them” is that there is your rule/guiding principle (is established) between them in this reconciliation. In all their matters they must have taqwa of Allaah and khashyah (خشية – reverence, awe) and fear of Him سبحانه و تعالى in that you adhere to the truth and justice and do not incline or have preference to one of the brothers as opposed to the other. They are your brothers and Islaam equates between all of them, so do not have preference between them and take sides, so that perhaps they will be compassionate as a result of their taqwa and conform to the commands and avoid the prohibitions.
  • إنما – This expression is used for specification (حصر). It signifies that there is no brotherhood except between the Mu’mineen (Believers). This is real specification (حصر حقيقي) as specification occurs in the language as supplemental specification (حصر إضافي – which is attributed to something else) and real specification (حصر حقيقي), and this is real specification. There is no brotherhood between the Mu’min (Believer) and the Kaafir (Disbeliever). This is because Islaam is the universal bond between its followers.
  • We benefit also from the command for reconciliation and its obligation within the brotherhood in Islaam.
  • It is not (an obligation) between the kuffar. However, if one is a Kaafir in a Muslim country – the Dhimmi or one granted safety, his protection is mandatory and sheltering him, and the removal of oppression from him, just as it is obligated to protect the Muslim and help him unrestrictedly if his opponent is militant.
  • There are many evidences concerning brotherhood in the Deen:
    • As comes in the Saheeh: “The Muslim is the brother of another Muslim, he does not oppress him and he does not surrender him.”[7]
    • And also in the Saheeh: “Allaah will aid a servant (of His) as long as the servant aids his brother.” [8]
    • And also from the Saheeh: “The similitude of Believers in regard to the mutual show of love and affection, is like that of one body; when any limb of it aches, the whole body aches, because of sleeplessness and fever.‏” [9]
    • And in another narration: "A believer to another believer is like a building whose different parts enforce each other." The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم then clasped his hands with the fingers interlaced (while saying that). [10]
    • Also, “The Believer from the people of Eemaan (Faith) is like the position of the head in regard to the body, he feels pain for the people of Eemaan like the body feels pain for what affects its head.”[11]


5. Ahkaam/Regulations to be derived from the Aayaat
 
  1. It is compulsory on those in Authority in the Muslim lands to reconcile between two Muslim groups who are fighting. This must be done with da’wah to the Book of Allaah and the texts, and by counsel, unification, and harmonization between them using the Book of Allaah.
  2. If one group exceeds the limit and does not comply with what Allaah has legislated, and they become impudent and cause corruption in the land, it is compulsory (on the government) to fight against them by using the lightest means possible, and then the less light after that, until they return to the Book of Allaah سبحانه و تعالى. If they return the there should be equity and justice in dealing with them for indeed Allaah loves those who are just and those who are equitable and He سبحانه و تعالى rewards them with the best of rewards.

    The term ‘Baghee’ based on the usage of the jurist, refers to groups who go against the established Government with their interpretations which appear acceptable (but which are) absolutely baatil (false) and useless on the basis of their erroneous conjecture.

    As for the murtad (apostate) their explanations are definitely false but they are not considered ‘Baghee’. Likewise the Khawaarij with their belief, besides killing the Muslims; they are a category of the Innovated sects who pronounce kufr on one who commits a major sin and they revile some of the Imaams, but they are not Bughaat. Also, individuals who take things unjustly are not Bughaat.

    The group of people that are to be dealt with in the way mentioned in the aayah are groups who have a lot of strength, numbers and equipment. In order to repel them the Imaam (Leader) needs to expend wealth and prepare men.
  3. From the speech of Allaah “And if two parties (or groups) among the Believers” – in this ayah there is evidence that a Believer that commits a major sin like murder, disobedience to the parents, using Ribaa or taking the wealth of the orphan, does not leave his state of being a Mu’min (Believer). This is because the injustice was incited by one of the two groups and Allaah called the both of them Mu’mineen (Believers).




QUESTIONS & ANSWERS


1. Question: Concerning the verse “If a faasiq (sinner) comes to you with news then verify it” [12] – can we deduce from this verse that if it is not a faasiq then we do not need to verify it (the news)?
Answer: The verse explains that the news of a faasiq must be checked as more often than not, he tells a lie. However, in matters of dispute where the dispute is before a judge, then an individual regardless of who he is should have some form of character reference. This is why when a person goes in front of a judge there must be some verification to say that this person is an upright individual.

The Shaykh حفظه الله gave the example of a person who came to ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab رضي الله عنه and wanted to be a character reference for a man, he asked him, “Did you travel with him?” He said “No.” He asked if he was a neighbour to him and he said “No” He asked if he had some business transaction with him with dinaar or dirham (units of money)? He said “No”. He said “Then you don’t know him.” So the person who is going to be a character reference for someone must know the individual that he is talking about and recommending.
The verse may be misunderstood because the implied understanding is not something that is general. In normal circumstances, if an individual comes e.g. Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthmaan, ‘Ali or someone like that who is trustworthy, then unless there is something to prove otherwise, their word is accepted.


2. Question: What qualities must a person possess to allow us to take news from him without verifying it?
Answer: There are certain regulations dealing with confirming or rejecting in disputes in front of a Judge. In this case the person who is bearing witness must have two individuals testifying to the correctness of his character, so that the Judge may accept his testimony.
However if a person is accused of something and the other individual (claimant) mentions that the rights have been discharged and this is accepted without any witnesses being there to testify on his behalf then there is no problem with this.[13]

3. Question: Some people mock the atheist and they deduce ahkaam (rulings) from some of the aayaat and they think it is permissible. What is your advice to them?
Answer: Allaah سبحانه و تعالى says:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لا يَسْخَرْ قَومٌ مِّن قَوْمٍ عَسَى أَن يَكُونُوا خَيْراً مِّنْهُمْ وَلَا نِسَاء مِّن نِّسَاء عَسَى أَن يَكُنَّ خَيْراً مِّنْهُنَّ وَلَا تَلْمِزُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ وَلَا تَنَابَزُوا بِالْأَلْقَابِ بِئْسَ الاِسْمُ الْفُسُوقُ بَعْدَ الْإِيمَانِ وَمَن لَّمْ يَتُبْ فَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ
{O you who believe! Let not a group scoff at another group, it may be that the latter are better than the former. Nor let (some) women scoff at other women, it may be that the latter are better than the former. Nor defame one another,  nor insult one another by nicknames. How bad is it to insult one's brother after having Faith [i.e. to call your Muslim brother (a faithful believer) as: "O sinner", or "O wicked"]. And whosoever does not repent, then such are indeed Zâlimûn (wrong doers).} [al-Hujuraat 49:11]
It is necessary for the Muslim to adopt Islaamic mannerisms in what is between him and his Rabb (Lord), and what is between him and his nafs (self) and what is between him and the people. He must treat each one according to what has been dictated by Allaah’s Legislation.

4. Question: Does the ‘news’ refer to all matters in the Religion or is it for all of the news?
Answer: The information that we receive is varied and different. Sometimes the information pertains to Allaah سبحانه و تعالى, sometimes it pertains to His Legislation and sometimes the information is related to the creation in general, whether in affirming something or in denying or negating it. It is necessary to verify all of these things, especially those things relating to the Deen as the Deen is an amaanah (trust) and Allaah سبحانه و تعالى mentions in the Qur’aan:
إِنَّ اللّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَن تُؤدُّواْ الأَمَانَاتِ إِلَى أَهْلِهَا
{Verily, Allâh commands that you should render back the trusts to those, to whom they are due…} [an-Nisaa 4:58]
This amaanah is the same whether it is between the individual and Allaah سبحانه و تعالى, or between him and himself or between him and the creation due to the matters incumbent upon him from the rulings of the Legislation whether negating or confirming (such information). What may occur is that we have in respect of this information, something that deals with a person’s heart and either affirming or negating something and this means that it must certainly be verified.

5. Question: If a person puts a statement of someone over the statement of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم would that be considered raising the voice over the voice of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم?
Answer: Allaah سبحانه و تعالى says:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُقَدِّمُوا بَيْنَ يَدَيِ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ
{O you who believe! Make not (a decision) in advance before Allâh and His Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم …} [al-Hujuraat 49:1]
 This ‘going ahead’ of Allaah سبحانه و تعالى and His Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم refers to placing the statement of a human being over the Statement of Allaah سبحانه و تعالى or His Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم whether it refers to legislation or in the area of belief. All of the earthly (man-made) legislation that go against the Qur’aan and the Sunnah of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم are included in this particular verse, and come under this legislation of ‘going ahead’ of Allaah سبحانه و تعالى and His Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم. They all include placing the legislation of a human above that of Allaah سبحانه و تعالى and His Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم.

6. Question: When a Muslim has a serious illness that may affect his ‘ibaadah (worship), should he ask Allaah to cure him or is it better for him to have sabr (patience)?
Answer: It is known that Allaah سبحانه و تعالى has legislated means, and from those means is ar-Ruqaa – the recitation of certain verses of the Qur’aan or certain supplication. We may also use the modern methods available in this day and time for curing illnesses. Allaah سبحانه و تعالى mentions in the Qur’aan:
وَنُنَزِّلُ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ مَا هُوَ شِفَاء وَرَحْمَةٌ لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ
{And We send down of the Qur'ân that which is a healing and a mercy to those who believe (in Islâmic Monotheism and act on it)…} [al-Israa 17:82]
There is a narration of an individual who was stung by a scorpion and one of the Companions of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم recited suratul-Faatihah over him and Allaah cured him. After this was done and the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم was presented with the scenario, he asked “what was it that made you know that this could be used as a ruqyah (incantation that can be recited)?”[14] Similarly, the types of tablets available, the water of Zamzam, and all of the modern methods that are used, and even operations that are performed, are all means that may be utilized and it does not go against a person’s being dependent on Allaah سبحانه و تعالى.
However, if a person is afflicted and he would like that Allaah سبحانه و تعالى use his affliction as atonement for the removal of his sins so that he may gain a greater reward, then this is left up to the individual. The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم in dealing with this issue mentioned that “from the seventy thousand (70,000) that will enter Jannah without any reckoning are those who do not seek ruqyah from others and they do not have superstition concerning bad omens and they do not do cauterization.”[15]

7. Question: What should be our position if one or two of our mashaaykh take a position or makes a point about a Da’ee (Caller) but there are some other scholars from Ahlus Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah who praise him and recommend him. What should we do in this situation especially if this has led to disunity amongst the brothers?
Answer: You must look at the Caller and look at his knowledge and what he is speaking about and conveying. Look at those who are praising him and their level of knowledge and look also at those who are criticizing him and their level of knowledge as well. The reason for the criticism should be investigated – is it something to do with his belief system, his worship or his characteristics? Or, is it simply because he is in opposition to the madhab that this person has and he is differing with him, and he is being criticized because of this? What is compulsory on us is to investigate the matter and find out exactly what is happening with respect to the individuals who are praising him and those who are criticizing him.



References and Notes

[1] Reported with the following wording in Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab al-Jihaad was-Siyar (#1799).
قيل للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: لو أتيت عبدالله بن أبي؟ قال: فانطلق إليه. وركب حمارا. وانطلق المسلمون. وهي أرض سبخة. فلما أتاه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: إليك عني. فوالله! لقد آذاني نتن حمارك. قال: فقال رجل من الأنصار: والله! لحمار رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أطيب ريحا منك. قال: فغضب لعبدالله رجل من قومه. قال: فغضب لكل واحد منهما أصحابه. قال: فكان بينهم ضرب بالجريد وبالأيدي وبالنعال. قال: فبلغنا أنها نزلت فيهم: {وإن طائفتان من المؤمنين اقتتلوا فأصلحوا بينهما} [49 /الحجرات /9]

[2] أَنًّ الْعِبْرَةَ بِعُمُومِ اللَّفْظِ لا بِخُصُوصِ السَّبَبِ

[3]Reported with the following wording in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, Kitaab as-Sulh (#2557).
رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم على المنبر، والحسن بن علي إلى جنبه، وهو يقبل على الناس مرة وعليه أخرى، ويقول: (إن ابني هذا سيد، ولعل الله أن يصلح به بين فئتين عظيمتين من المسلمين)

[4] Reference Pending

[5] Reported by an-Nasaa’ee in al-Kubraa (#5917)
عن عبد الله بن عمرو؛ أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: "إن المقسطين في الدنيا على منابر من لؤلؤ بين يدي الرحمن، بما أقسطوا في الدني"

[6] Reported with the following wording in Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab al-Imaarah (#1827) from Zuhayr.
إن المقسطين، عند الله، على منابر من نور. عن يمين الرحمن عز وجل. وكلتا يديه يمين؛ الذين يعدلون في حكمهم وأهليهم وما ولوا

[7] Reported as part of a longer hadeeth in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, Kitaab al-Madhaalim (#2310), Kitaab al-Ikraah (#6551) from ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar رضي الله عنهما and in Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab al-Birr was-Silah wal-Aadaab (#2580).
المسلم أخو المسلم، لا يظلمه ولا يسلمه ...

[8] Reported as part of a longer hadeeth in Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab ad-Dhikr wad-Du’aa wat-Taubah wal-Istigfaar (#2699) from Abu Hurayrah رضي الله عنه. Found in an-Nawawi’s Forty Hadeeth (#36).
... والله في عون العبد ما كان العبد في عون أخيه...

[9] Reported with the following wording in Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab al-Birr was-Silah wal-Aadaab (#2586) from Nu’maan bin Basheer.
مثل المؤمنين في توادهم وتراحمهم وتعاطفهم، مثل الجسد. إذا اشتكى منه عضو، تداعى له سائر الجسد بالسهر والحمى

[10] Reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, Kitaab al-Madhaalim (#2314) from Abu Musa.
(المؤمن للمؤمن كالبنيان، يشد بعضه بعضا). وشبك بين أصابعه

[11] Shaykh al-Albaanee رحمه الله says Saheeh in Silsilah as-Saheehah 3/129 (#1137).
المؤمن من أهل الإيمان بمنزلة الرأس من الجسد: يألم المؤمن لأهل الإيمان كما يألم الجسد لما في الرأس

[12] Surah al-Hujuraat 49:6

[13] This is my interpretation of what the Shaykh حفظه الله said: “However if one is accused of something and he brings witnesses and the Claimant accepts the testimony of the witnesses and they agree that the rights of the Accused have been discharged, without the Claimant having investigated the character of the witnesses, then there is no problem with this.” And Allaah knows best.

[14] Reported with similar wording as part of a long hadeeth in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, Kitaab al-Ijaarah (#2156).

[15] As part of a longer hadeeth with the following wording, Shaykh al-Albaanee رحمه الله says Saheeh in Saheeh al-Jaami’ (#3999). Reported as part of a longer hadeeth with similar wording in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, Kitaab at-Tibb (#5420).
...سبعون ألفا يدخلون الجنة بغير حساب ولا عذاب هم الذين لا يرقون ولا يسترقون ولا يتطيرون ولا يكتوون وعلى ربهم يتوكلون