CLASS #7 - Delivered on February 17th, 2007


After praising Allaah سبحانه و تعالى and sending the salaat and salaam upon the best of creation, our Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم, his family members and all his Companions, the Shaykh حفظه الله then said:

 

Book: Purification

Chapter 5: Ritual Bathing – al-Ghusl

Quote:
بابٌ الغُسلُ
والغُسل الواجب هو أن يُفيضَ الماء على جميع بدنه أو ينغمسَ فيه، مع المضمضة والاستنشاق، والدلكِ لما يمكن دلكه. ولا يكون شرعياً إلا بالنية لرفع موجِبه. ونُدب تقديم غسل أعضاء الوضوء إلا القدمين، ثم التيامنُ.
فصل:
ويشرع لصلاة الجمعة، وللعيدين، ولمن غسّل ميتاً، وللإحرام، ولدخول مكةَ.
The Chapter of Ghusl

The Ghusl that is obligatory is when water is poured on all parts of the body or the body is immersed in it. It also includes rinsing the mouth and blowing the nose and rubbing (with the water) all the body parts that one is able (to reach). The Ghusl is not legally acceptable (cannot perform ‘eebadah with it) unless (it is preceded with) Nīyah (intention) to remove oneself from the state of defilement.
It is desirable (mandūb) to begin by washing the limbs that are washed in wudū’ except for the feet, and to wash the right limbs and side first.

The Ghusl is legislated for:
1. Salatul-Jumu‘ah
2. The two ‘Eed Prayers
3. For the one who washes a deceased person
4. For Ihraam
5. For entering into Makkah.


The Performance of Ghusl

The Legislated Ghusl
والغُسل الواجب هو أن يُفيضَ الماء على جميع بدنه أو ينغمسَ فيه
The ghusl which is waajib necessitates that the individual pours water all over his body so that it touches every part of his body. This is if the water is flowing like the sea or a river, or if it is like a pool or pond where the water is collected, then one may be immersed in it.

The condition for the legislated ghusl to occur is that it must be done with the intention of performing ghusl (for the removal of major impurity).

Translator’s note: In some books you see the word ghusl translated as ‘shower’ or ‘bath’ – this is not a correct translation as it is not the same as the legislated ghusl if you just have a shower without having the intention of removing major impurities.


With rinsing your mouth and snuffing and blowing your nose

مع المضمضة والاستنشاق
The Madmadah (مضمضة – rinsing the mouth to remove smells, food remnants etc.) and the Istinshaaq (snuffing water in the nose to remove mucus, snot etc.) have been established from the actions of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم.

There is no doubt that the ‘Ulamaa have differed on whether they are compulsory or not; but what is correct is that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم ordered with the Madmadah and the Istinshaaq or he صلى الله عليه و سلم did it, or he did it only (without also ordering that it be done). Due to this there is difference regarding whether it is compulsory or not.

The Shaykh حفظه الله said that what is apparent to him, and Allaah knows best, is that the general statement is that if an individual wants to make a complete ghusl, he makes wudū’ before ghusl and then washes his feet.

In reality, the Madmadah and the Istinshaaq occurs in the wudū’ so if one enters the water or pours water on his entire body with the intention of performing ghusl and he does not perform wudū’ then his ghusl is still correct; however, if he makes wudū’ then this is loved and preferable.

So are the Madmadah and the Istinshaaq obligatory? There is ikhtilaaf (difference of opinion) regarding this. For wudū’ the Madmadah and the Istinshaaq are waajib (obligatory). As for ghusl, there is ikhtilaaf on the issue. It is preferred to perform wudū’ before ghusl and the Madmadah and the Istinshaaq occurs within wudū’. What is waajib (obligatory) in ghusl is pouring water over the entire body or immersing oneself in water.


Rubbing all (the body parts) that one is able to rub
والدلكِ لما يمكن دلكه
One must rub the body parts that are possible to be rubbed because in reality, simply immersing oneself in water without rubbing is not considered ghusl (i.e. legislated ghusl).


Legislated ghusl necessitates the correct intention
ولا يكون شرعياً إلا بالنية لرفع موجِبه
Ghusl is not considered legislated ghusl without the intention of removing oneself from a state of impurities which necessitates it (ghusl). That is, if the reason for ghusl is janaabah (major ritual impurity – sexual defilement) or the reason for ghusl is removing minor impurity.

If one performs ghusl even with the intention of wudū’ then this is correct as the ‘Ulamaa have said and as comes in the evidences for that.


It is desired to precede ghusl with wudū’ except (washing) the feet
ونُدب تقديم غسل أعضاء الوضوء إلا القدمين
It is desired, not waajib (compulsory) to precede ghusl with wudū’. It is mustahabb (recommended) as comes in Bukhaaree and Muslim that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم when he performed ghusl to purify himself from janaabah, began by washing his hands, then he poured water with his right hand on his left hand and washed his private parts. He then performed ablution as is done for prayer and then poured water over his body and then washed his feet.‏[1] So from this no doubt, it was done by the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم and doing this will be completion in performing the ghusl.

The performance of wudū’, excluding washing the feet, before pouring water over the entire body is desired.


Important Notes

There are some very important and essential things to pay attention to. They are:

  1. If a Muslim makes wudū’ then makes ghusl following the method we mentioned previously, there is no disagreement (خلاف) regarding the correctness of salaah with that combined ghusl and wudū’. But there is disagreement regarding one touching his private parts after wudū’, without having a barrier from cloth or other than that, between his hand and private parts. If he does not touch his private part without a barrier then there is no disagreement concerning the correctness of his salaah with this ghusl combined with wudū’ in the method mentioned.

    However, if he touches his private parts without any barrier i.e. with his bare hands then this invalidates his wudū’ and wudū’ alone must be performed before salaah. His ghusl remains intact and it is not required that another ghusl be performed.
  2. As for if he performs ghusl only, and does not precede the ghusl with wudū’ but he performs ghusl with the intention of a waajib (obligatory) ghusl or a mustahabb (desired) ghusl and he intends that this ghusl is his ritual purification and his wudū’ and he intends salaah after it, then it is permissible that he does not perform wudū’ after it. There are narrations from the Sahaabah where it is not mentioned that they performed wudū’ then performed ghusl. They were asked if they performed wudū’ after ghusl and they said that it is not required as they washed from their head to their feet and that suffices. Thereby, the Ulamaa’ permit it with these texts, as well general narrations from the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم that he did not perform wudū’ after ghusl.[2]

    However we consider the action of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم as his approved Sunnah – he performed wudū’ like the (wudū’) for salaah then performed ghusl. So if it is done like this, there is no need for an individual to perform wudū’ (again). Nevertheless, if he only performed ghusl without preceding it with wudū’ then this is also permissible if his nīyah was to perform salaah after the ghusl.

    Translator’s note: Therefore, just because something is allowed, it does not imply that we should leave off the Sunnah of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم in order to do what is allowed. Rather, we have been ordered by Allaah سبحانه و تعالى to follow the Sunnah of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم. This is something that should be given attention, as many times we see that one finds a way out of doing something and they take that way out, thereby abandoning part of the Sunnah. The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم would make a wudū’ before he made ghusl and this is the way that we should follow.

Wash the right limbs and side first
ثم التيامنُ
at-Tayyaamun – this means to begin everything starting with the right side. This was beloved to the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم and it is highly recommended.

If an individual wants to make ghusl, then after the wudū’ he starts with the right side of his body followed by the left side of the body. When he starts to wash his head and he pours the water over his head three times, he starts with the right side of his head just as it is mentioned on the authority of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم from ‘Ayesha رضي الله عنها that “The Prophet used to like to start from the right side on wearing shoes, combing his hair, cleaning or washing himself and doing anything else.”[3]

This is highly recommended and as mentioned previously, just because it is recommended it does not mean that one should be negligent regarding it. Its being mustahabb (recommended) does not mean that we should intentionally abandon it. As Muslims we have been ordered by Allaah سبحانه و تعالى and the Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم to follow the Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم in all affairs of our life – whether we may consider it a minute or a major affair. We must hold fast to his صلى الله عليه و سلم Sunnah because everything which the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم did was khair (good).


When Ghusl is performed

ويشرع لصلاة الجمعة، وللعيدين، ولمن غسّل ميتاً، وللإحرام، ولدخول مكةَ.
  1. On the Day of Jumu’ah

    His رحمه الله statement يشرع (yushra’) implies that it is not waajib (obligatory) i.e. it may mean mustahabb (desired) or muakkad (emphasized) but they indicate that it is not waajib. It is highly recommended i.e. not waajib (compulsory) to perform ghusl on Yawmul-Jumu’ah (The Day of Jumu’ah). This is what the author رحمه الله mentions in this section.

    The Ulamaa’ differ on whether it is compulsory or highly recommended and we will mention what we consider to be the strongest opinion based upon the sound and authentic narrations that we have from the Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم. From them is a narration from Ibn Abbas رضي الله عنهما which is found in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree and others, where the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “Take a ghusl on Yawmul-Jumu’ah.”[4] This is a command from the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم as some of the ‘Ulamaa explain, and therefore it is not permissible to abandon the ghusl on the Day of Jumu’ah. There are other narrations which come on the authority of Ibn Abbas, Abu Hurayrah, Abu Sa’eed and others from the Sahabaah رضي الله عنهم – those from amongst them who saw it compulsory for the Muslim to make a ghusl on the Day of Jumu’ah, and that the one who intentionally abandons making ghusl on the Day of Jumu’ah is a sinner.

    However, there is another large group of the ‘Ulamaa from the Sahaabah and other than them who take the other opinion that making ghusl on the Day of Jumu’ah is not waajib. This is based on the fact that some of the Sahaabah used to come from far places so that they could pray Jumu’ah with the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم. By the time they arrived they were sweaty, dirty and dusty as they traveled through the desert as some of them left days before, and some left very early that morning in order to arrive in Madinah on time to pray Jumu’ah with the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم. None of them who arrived in that state went back to make ghusl a second time. As a result of this some of the ‘Ulamaa take this opinion and say that ghusl on the Day of Jumu’ah is not compulsory.

    Nevertheless, when we look at the authentic narrations that were mentioned, the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم never mentioned a reason why the ghusl would be compulsory, rather he left it as a general statement and that is the way that we understand the text – in a general manner.

    There is another issue that should be mentioned regarding the ghusl on the Day of Jumu’ah. Although we see it to be waajib, one who does not make a ghusl on the Day of Jumu’ah but performs the Jumu’ah salaah, this does not necessitate that his pray is unacceptable. Rather, his prayer is correct. This is based on a narration from Ameer al-Mu’mineen ‘Umar رضي الله عنه where he was giving a khutbah on the day of Jumu’ah and ‘Uthmaan رضي الله عنه entered the masjid while ‘Umar رضي الله عنه was on the minbar giving the khutbah. ‘Umar stopped the khutbah and asked ‘Uthmaan, “Are you entering into the masjid at this time?” ‘Uthmaan replied that when he heard the adhaan he had to go back and make wudū’. ‘Umar رضي الله عنه said to him “You only made wudū’?” Then he went and sat down and he prayed.[5] This shows that had his salaah not been valid, then ‘Umar رضي الله عنه would have ordered him to go back and make a ghusl. However the fact that he stayed and prayed along with the Jama’ah and he did not make a ghusl although they held that it was compulsory, and that ‘Umar رضي الله عنه did not send him to make ghusl, shows that his salaah is valid.
  2. For the Two ‘Eed days

    Ghusl is highly recommended for the performance of the salaah on the two days of ‘Eed – ‘Eed ul-Fitr and ‘Eed ul-Adha. There are authentic narrations that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم performed ghusl before going out for the ‘Eed salaah.[6] There is also a narration that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم performed ghusl for the day of Jumu’ah, the day of Fitr (‘Eed ul-Fitr) and the day of Nahr (Sacrifice – ‘Eed ul-Adha).[7] Likewise there are narrations from the Sahaabah that they confirmed making ghusl on these days – Yawmul-Jumu’ah and Yawmul-‘Eedayn (the two ‘Eeds). This narration was mentioned by Imaam Ahmad رحمه الله. From this it is taken to be a highly recommended action. It is not obligatory nor a condition for the correctness of the salaah.
  3. One who washes a dead body

    It is mustahabb (highly recommended) that one performs ghusl after washing a dead body. This refers to any dead person i.e. whether the body is male or female. For example if a man washes his (dead) mother or wife; washing his wife is correct whereas in reality washing the body of his dead mother or other than her is not correct except in dire necessity. The ‘Ulamaa have explained the details pertaining to this issue. Generally the men wash the male body and the women wash the female body and not the opposite. However, it is permissible for a husband to wash his dead wife’s body and vice versa.

    Therefore, whoever washes a body, whether male or female it is mustahabb (highly recommended) that they perform ghusl after. There is a hadith where the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم ordered with performing ghusl after washing the dead body: “Whoever washes a dead body then let him perform ghusl and whoever carries it (to the graveyard) then let him perform wudū’.”[8] So is the ghusl and the wudū’ waajib? Yes, it is possible to deduce from this hadeeth that it is obligatory to perform ghusl after washing the dead, and likewise the necessity of performing wudū’ after carrying the dead. However, there is an authentic hadeeth reported from Haakim and other than him that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “Indeed your dead ones die in a state of purity so whoever washes it, it suffices for him to wash his hand.”[9] From that, it is not waajib for one to perform ghusl after washing a dead person, rather it is mustahabb (highly recommended).
  4. For assuming the state of Ihraam

    It is desired to perform ghusl for assuming the state of Ihraam[10]. There is a narration from Tirmidhee and other than him, in an authentic hadeeth inshaa Allaah, that some of the Sahaabah said that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم removed his regular clothing and performed ghusl for wearing his Ihraam.[11] Therefore, it is mustahabb (highly recommended) for the Muhrim (pilgrim who is in a state of ritual consecration‏) whether for ‘Umrah or any type (from the three types) of Hajj, to perform ghusl.

    If he does not perform ghusl and he is in a state of ritual purity for salaah, then it is permissible for him to assume the state of Ihraam without ghusl inshaa Allaah and this is the opinion of most of the ‘Ulamaa and they do no not make it waajib.
  5. Entering Makkah

    It is also desired and mustahabb (highly recommended) to perform ghusl for entering the precincts of Makkah al-Mukarramah. In reality this desirability pertains to when the individual is entering Makkah in Ihraam for pilgrimage or ‘Umrah. So if the Muhrim (pilgrim who is in a state of ritual consecration‏) whether for ‘Umrah or Hajj wants to enter Makkah then it is highly recommended that he performs ghusl. This is based on what comes in an authentic hadeeth from Muslim and other than him that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم did not enter Makkah except that he spent the night at Dhi Tuwa until dawn then performed ghusl then entered Makkah in the day. Ibn Umar who narrated the hadeeth said that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم did that.[12] This is also narrated from Bukhaaree and other than him.[13] The Shaykh حفظه الله mentioned that Dhi Tuwa is now within the precincts of Makkah but during that time it was not considered a part of Makkah. It is now behind the mountain which stands at the back of the Ka’bah. This action is highly recommended.

    Two other instances
    There are two other instances when it is highly recommended to make a ghusl which the author did not mention. The Shaykh حفظه الله mentioned very briefly what these are.
  6. When an individual falls unconscious

    It is highly recommended that an individual performs ghusl after regaining consciousness after falling unconscious for whatever reason. However, it is waajib upon him to make wudū’. The evidence for this is found in the hadeeth where the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم towards the end of his life when he was ill just before he صلى الله عليه و سلم died, he would lose consciousness and then regain consciousness. At this time he ordered Abu Bakr رضي الله عنه to go and lead the salaah with the Muslims. When he regained consciousness he would ask for water to be brought and he would make a ghusl and then come out and pray the salaah with the Sahaabah, praying next to Abi Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhum).[14] So it is waajib for one who loses consciousness and then regains it, to make a wudū’, but highly recommended that he makes a ghusl.
  7. A woman who has the blood of istihaadah

    This blood is the blood that a woman has which exceeds the normal period of menses. The ‘Ulamaa explain that the blood of menses has particular characteristics which women are aware of. These include smell, colour and thickness and they are used to distinguish the blood of menses from any other blood.

    The blood of the mustahaadah is different, having characteristics opposite to those of menstrual blood. When a woman sees this blood it is highly recommended for her to make a ghusl before each salaah. The women must pay very close attention to this as many women are negligent regarding identifying the different types of blood based on their characteristics. The types include the blood of menses, the blood of nifaas i.e. postpartum bleeding and the blood of istihaadah. The blood that the woman came to complain about was neither the blood of menses nor nifaas rather it was the blood of istihaadah. The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم told her that when the time for her normal menses ceases i.e. the characteristics are no longer present, but the bleeding continues, then she should make a ghusl, secure the area so that blood would not get on her clothing, and make a wudū’ for every salaah and if she made ghusl it is preferred.[15] That is, it is preferred to make ghusl before each salaah for the one who is in a state of istihaadah. In this case ghusl is not waajib except after the blood of menses stops then a ghusl is done, and if bleeding continues as istihaadah then wudū’ is performed for every salaah.





Chapter 6: The Dry Ablution – at-Tayammum
Quote:
بابٌ التيممُ
يستباح به ما يستباح بالوضوء والغسل، لمن لا يجد الماء أو خشي الضرر من استعماله.
وأعضاؤه الوجه ثم الكفّان؛ يمسحهما مرّةً واحدةً بضربةٍ واحدةٍ ناوياً مسمّياً.
ونواقضه نواقض الوضوء.

The Chapter of Tayammum

(The Performance of tayammum) permits (all acts of worship) that are made permissible by wudū’ or Ghusl for the one who cannot find water or fears hardship if he uses water. The limbs (that are to be cleansed during the tayammum are) the face and the two hands; wiped over one single time while having nīyah and sayingبِسْمِ اللَّهِ . The Ghusl is nullified by all that nullifies wudū’.


Definition of Tayammum

Linguistically it means to have an intention or a desire. In the Sharee’ah (Legislation) it means to purify oneself with clean earth with the intention of purifying oneself. This is found in the statement of Allaah:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلاةِ فاغْسِلُواْ وُجُوهَكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلَى الْمَرَافِقِ وَامْسَحُواْ بِرُؤُوسِكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَينِ وَإِن كُنتُمْ جُنُباً فَاطَّهَّرُواْ وَإِن كُنتُم مَّرْضَى أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاء أَحَدٌ مَّنكُم مِّنَ الْغَائِطِ أَوْ لاَمَسْتُمُ النِّسَاء فَلَمْ تَجِدُواْ مَاء فَتَيَمَّمُواْ صَعِيداً طَيِّباً فَامْسَحُواْ بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُم مِّنْهُ مَا يُرِيدُ اللّهُ لِيَجْعَلَ عَلَيْكُم مِّنْ حَرَجٍ وَلَـكِن يُرِيدُ لِيُطَهَّرَكُمْ وَلِيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
{O you who believe! When you intend to offer As-Salât (the prayer), wash your faces and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to the ankles. If you are in a state of Janâba (i.e. after a sexual discharge),  purify yourselves (bathe your whole body). But if you are ill or on a journey, or any of you comes from the Ghâ'it (toilet),  or you have been in contact with women (i.e. sexual intercourse), and you find no water, then perform tayammum with clean earth  and rub therewith your faces and hands. Allâh does not want to place you in difficulty, but He wants to purify you,  and to complete His Favour to you that you may be thankful.} [al-Maaidah 5:6]


Explanation of the Ayah

In the ayah where it mentions “and you find no water” – this refers to the unavailability of water or having insufficient water. For example, you may have some water but if you use it for wudū’ then you will have no water to drink and you will be thirsty; and if you use the water to drink then it would not be sufficient for you to make wudū’ or ghusl. In this case one should make tayammum with clean earth and preserve the water for drinking.

In this ayah Allaah سبحانه و تعالى indicates how wudū’ should be performed, what necessitates ghusl i.e. when He mentioned janaabah and He clarified to us what we should do in the case where we have insufficient water. He سبحانه و تعالى said that we should do tayammum. He then mentioned how tayammum should be done.

The Legislation of Islaam clarified to us the various forms of purification that exist in Islaam, and clarified to us the things which nullify these types of purification, whether it be wudū’, ghusl or tayammum.

The ayah continues to say that Allaah does not want to place any difficulty upon us. If Allaah سبحانه و تعالى made making ghusl or wudū’ something that was binding, such that there was no way around it, then it would be a difficulty upon us. So this shows the beauty of the Legislation of Islaam i.e. the origin of this Religion is founded upon ease in the Religion and it is not straitened. Allaah سبحانه و تعالى has made everything easy for us as He says in another ayah:
لاَ يُكَلِّفُ اللّهُ نَفْساً إِلاَّ وُسْعَهَا
{Allâh burdens not a person beyond his scope…} [al-Baqarah 2:286]

Similarly from ease in the Religion is that when travelling we are permitted to shorten our salaah and likewise break our fast (refrain from fasting), and if we don’t find sufficient water we may perform tayammum.

It is from the beauty of Islaam that Allaah does not want to place a burden on us as mentioned in the first ayah quoted “Allaah does not want to place you in difficulty but He wants to purify you, and to complete His Favour to you that you may be thankful.” We should thank Allaah سبحانه و تعالى and constantly show our gratitude to Him for this tremendous blessing He has given us from his Favours towards us, by making this Religion complete, comprehensive and easy for us.


When tayammum is done

The tayammum is for the one who doesn’t find water, or he finds water but it is not sufficient for both drinking and purification, whether it be wudū’ or ghusl depending on what is required.

The ‘Ulamaa have explained that tayammum can be used as one uses wudū’ i.e. if one makes tayammum for salaatul Dhuhr he may perform salaah as long as he does not nullify his tayammum i.e. he may pray ‘Asr, Maghrib etc. with the same tayammum.

Some ‘Ulamaa say that tayammum is valid for only a single salaah, and it must be repeated for each salaah[16] even though the tayammum has not been nullified. This is a very weak statement and it is not supported by any daleel (evidence). Rather, the evidence indicates that tayammum is used just like any other form of purification e.g. wudū’ or ghusl, and this is what is correct.


Tayammum differs from Wudū’

If you notice, the body parts washed during wudū’ are more than the parts wiped during tayammum. Are we going to wipe over the body parts with the dirt like we do for wudū’? Is this how we perform tayammum – by putting the dirt in our mouth then spitting it out, and wiping our face with dirt then our head and feet? No, we make tayammum like the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم did as we have been ordered to follow him صلى الله عليه و سلم and he did not teach the Sahaabah to make tayammum like this.

Some of the Sahaabah, before understanding the details of tayammum, they made tayammum like they did wudū’ as mentioned on the authority of ‘Ammar ibn Yaasir رضي الله عنه that once he had to make tayammum and he rolled himself on the ground and then prayed? He informed the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم about it and he صلى الله عليه و سلم said, ‘It would have been sufficient for you to do like this.’ The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم then stroked the earth lightly with his hands and then blew off the dust and passed his hands over his face and hands.[17] He صلى الله عليه و سلم didn’t wipe anything else. This shows us that in the ayah mentioned previously (al-Maaidah 5:6) Allaah سبحانه و تعالى mentions tayammum in a general manner and the Sunnah came to clarify the method of doing it.

In this ayah, Allaah سبحانه و تعالى also said as it relates to wudū’, that you should wash your hands up to the elbows and Allaah سبحانه و تعالى also ordered with wiping the hands in tayammum, but is the wiping of the hands in tayammum the same as we wash them in wudū’? In the ayah, the hand washed in wudū’ refers to the tips of the fingers to the elbows as explained by the ‘Ulamaa. However, in tayammum, it does not mean that. This shows that the Sunnah came to clarify the Qur’aan and it is necessary for us to return to the Sunnah. The hand to be wiped in tayammum is from the tips of the fingers to the wrist, including the palms. This shows the importance of the Sunnah in explaining the Qur’aan.


Performance of tayammum

  1. Tayammum is performed once with one strike of the earth. The dirt used is what is found outside or other than it. The striking of the dirt with the palms of the hands must be with the intention of purification (i.e. removing the major impurities which by necessity include the minor impurities.)
  2. ‘Bismillaah’ must be said at the beginning as done for wudū’ based on the saying of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم in an authentic hadeeth that “there is no wudū’ without saying Bismillaah”.[18]
  3. Then strike the earth with the palms of the hands once, then wipe the face first, and then the palms of the hands up to the wrist. This is the correct method of making tayammum based on what comes from the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم.

It was mentioned from some of the Sahaabah that they used to strike the earth twice with their hands – once to wipe over their face and another time to wipe their hands.[19] The Shaykh حفظه الله said that it is okay to do it like this, but what is most correct is to do it exactly the way the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم did it – striking the earth once and wiping both the face and hands with that one strike.


What nullifies Tayammum

The nullifiers of tayammum are things which nullify wudū’. From these nullifiers are:
  • Defecation, urine, and whatever exits from the private parts – whether the front or back e.g., seminal fluid, sperms etc., the blood of menses or istihaadah, passing gas etc.
  • Losing consciousness.
  • Heavy sleeping.

All these break wudū’ and likewise nullify tayammum. If you need to perform acts of worship which require purification e.g. salaah or tawaaf of the Ka’bah then you must be in a state of ritual purity.



Questions & Answers


1. Question: A man made tayammum and started the salaah, then his friend came with water whilst he was in the first rakah. Should he break the salaah or continue making the salaah?
Answer: If the individual has already entered into salaah or has already completed the salaah then his salaah is valid and correct, even if he finds water afterwards. If an individual makes tayammum to perform say, salaatud-Dhuhr, but he has not yet actually entered into the salaah and he finds water, then it is compulsory upon him to perform wudū’ with water.

If he has made tayammum for a salaah and then another salaah enters and he has not nullified his state of purification, but he finds water, then he may perform the salaah without making wudū’. For example, he made tayammum for Dhuhr then ‘Asr enters and he is still in a state of purification he may pray ‘Asr with the tayammum, even though he has found water.[20] If however, he nullified his state of purification and he found water, then he must make wudū’ with the water before performing his next salaah.

If he has started the salaah and he hears that water has been found it is not incumbent upon him to leave the salaah to perform wudū’ as he began his salaah in a state of purification.

There is something that we must pay attention to. If he has already entered into the prayer with the purification of tayammum and during the course of praying he hears that water has been found then his salaah is valid. However, if after he completes the salaah there is time left and he wants to repeat the salaah after making wudū’, then he can do this. This is based on the hadith where two men set out on a journey and the time for salaah arrived and they had no water, so they made tayammum and performed the salaah. Then they found water within the time for the salaah, so one of them repeated the salaah with wudū’ whilst the other didn’t. Then they came to the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم and they mentioned it to him. He said to the one who did not repeat “you are correct and accomplished the Sunnah, and your salaah would be rewarded” and he said to the one who made wudū’ and repeated the prayer “you will be rewarded twice.”[22] He will be rewarded twice as he performed salaah twice – once with tayammum and once with wudū’. However, note that this does not mean that if one wants to be rewarded twice he should make wudū’ then pray, then make another wudū’ and repeat the salaah. This is not something that is legislated. Rather this is an isolated incident restricted to that particular situation (where tayammum was necessary due to the unavailability of water but thereafter water was obtained within the time for the salaah).


2. Question: Would ghusl be sufficient to be wudū’ if intended as such?
Answer: Yes, we mentioned previously that if an individual makes ghusl without making wudū’ within the ghusl, his ghusl is correct once he made the intention of performing ghusl as it was mentioned that some of the Sahaabah did this.


3. Question: [--- Due to an apparent break in the audio the question was not obtained. However, based on the answer it seems to be regarding wiping over the ears during ghusl. And Allaah knows best. ---]
Answer: It is not necessary for an individual to wipe over the ears when making ghusl as this is already included in the ghusl where the water will trickle down on the head, ears and rest of the body. It is not something that is necessary, but as it relates to the wudū’ then it is necessary as this is the way that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم described the wudū’ to us.

Translator’s note: As a matter of clarification – most of the ahaadeeth describing ghusl which have been translated into English, mention that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم made ghusl and before he washed his feet, he would remove himself from that place due to water collecting in one place and he would be standing in that water. If he was previously in a state of janaabah (sexual impurity) there may be things in the water which would make it inappropriate to wash his feet in that place. He would therefore remove himself from that place and wash his feet in another place. The Shaykh حفظه الله was asked concerning our present time where we have bathrooms that have drains which prevent the water from collecting in one place, and if we still need to wash our feet in another place after making ghusl in the bathroom. He حفظه الله said “No”, because that was for a specific reason. However, in most of the English translations of these ahaadeeth there is no mention of why the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم did that. This has become a big discrepancy among the brothers and sisters in the West who read these translations. If the bathroom has a drain so that the water does not collect but drains off, then there is no problem washing the feet in the bathroom.


4. Question: Is dust a condition for tayammum or not, because many of the buildings are made of cement, ceramic tiles and wood?
Answer: The ‘Ulamaa differ on what is actually meant by the statement of Allaah سبحانه و تعالى: صَعِيداً طَيِّباً (sa’eedan tayyiban – clean dirt) and the other statement ‘clean earth’. The ayah mentions ‘clean dirt’ and the hadeeth mentions ‘clean earth’. Also, where the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said that he was given five things that no other prophet was given, from those five things is that the earth was made for him as a purification – all of earth, regardless of where he was he could use the earth for purification.[22] This is whether it is rocks, cement, dirt – all of this is included in that as Allaah سبحانه و تعالى said ‘clean dirt’. This (صعيد) refers to any dirt which exists on the earth naturally – whether it is the dust found on the wall – whether the wall is painted or unpainted. It also includes the dust found on the floor. The dust found on the wall may be used for tayammum. There comes in another narration where the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم mentions ‘turbah’[23] which is earth found on the ground where fruits and vegetables grow out of it. This is the dirt specified in the text and it is the most appropriate and if available it is not permissible to use other than it, but if you cannot find this type of dirt then you may use any type of dust, dirt, cement etc.

For example, if we are on an airplane and there’s no dirt and there’s no water – then what do we do? In this situation you would stand up, strike your hand on the seat of the chair or any part of the plane and make tayammum, and inshaa Allaah it will be correct and Allaah does not hold us accountable for what is out of our control as He سبحانه و تعالى said:
لاَ يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْساً إِلاَّ وُسْعَهَا
{Allâh burdens not a person beyond his scope…} [al-Baqarah 2:286]



Footnotes and References

[1] Reported from ‘Ayesha رصي الله عنها in Saheeh Muslim with the following wording in Kitaab al-Hayd (#316) and with a similar wording in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree Kitaab al-Ghusl (#245).
كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، إذا اغتسل من الجنابة، يبدأ فيغسل يديه. ثم يفرغ بيمينه على شماله. فيغسل فرجه. ثم يتوضأ وضوئه للصلاة. ثم يأخذ الماء. فيدخل أصابعه في أصول الشعر. حتى إذا رأى أن قد استبرأ، حفن على رأسه ثلاث حفنات. ثم أفاض على سائر جسده. ثم غسل رجليه

[2] Reported in Jaami’ at-Tirmidhi 1/179 (#107), Sunan an-Nasaa’ee 1/209 (#430), Sunan Ibn Maajah 1/191 (#579) and Abi Daawuud. Authenticated as Saheeh in Mishkaat al-Masaabeeh (#445).
وعن عائشة رضي الله عنها قالت كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لا يتوضأ بعد الغسل


[3] Reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, Kitaab al-Wudū’ (#166) from ‘Ayesha رضي الله عنها

كان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يعجبه التيمن في تنعله وترجله وطهوره، وفي شأنه كله

[4] Reported from Ibn Abbas in Musnad Imaam Ahmad (#3059) and with a similar wording (#2383). See Saheeh al-Jaami’ (#1076) and Saheeh at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (#692).

اغتسلوا يوم الجمعة واغسلوا رؤوسكم وإن لم تكونوا جنبا وأصيبوا من الطيب

[5] Reported in Saheeh Muslim with the following wording in Kitaab al-Jumu’ah (#845).
أن عمر بن الخطاب، بينا هو يخطب الناس يوم الجمعة، دخل رجل من أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم. فناداه عمر: أية ساعة هذه ؟ فقال: إني شغلت اليوم. فلم أنقلب إلى أهلي حتى سمعت النداء. فلم أزد على أن توضأت. قال عمر: والوضوء أيضا وقد علمت أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يأمر بالغسل!

[6] Reference pending. The translator mentioned this hadeeth, but it does not seem to have been mentioned by the Shaykhحفظه الله in the audio used to prepare these notes.

[7] With the following wording Shaykh al-Albaanee رحمه الله says Da’eef in Da’eef al-Jaami’ (#4590).
كان يغتسل يوم الجمعة ويوم الفطر ويوم النحر ويوم عرفة

[8] Reported in Sunan abi-Daawuud 3/201 Kitaab al-Janaaiz (#3161). Shaykh al-Albaanee رحمه الله says with a Saheeh isnaad.
من غسل الميت فليغتسل ومن حمله فليتوضأ

[9] Reference Pending.

[10] Ihraam – the clothing that the pilgrims wear when performing ‘Umrah or any of the three types of Hajj. For the men it comprises two pieces of cloth – the lower garment which is the izaar (loincloth) and the upper garment which is the ridaa.

[11] Reported in Jaami at-Tirmidhee 3/192, Abwaab al-Hajj wal-‘Umrah (#830) from Zayd ibn Thaabit. Shaykh al-Albaanee رحمه الله says with a Saheeh isnaad.
رأى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم تجرد لإهلاله واغتسل قال أبو عيسى هذا حديث حسن غريب وقد استحب قوم من أهل العلم الاغتسال عند الإحرام وبه يقول الشافعي

[12] Reported with the following wording in Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab al-Hajj (#1259).
أن ابن عمر كان لا يقدم مكة إلا بات بذي طوى. حتى يصبح ويغتسل. ثم يدخل مكة نهارا. ويذكر عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه فعله

[13] Reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree and Saheeh Muslim. Refer to Miskaat al-Masaabeeh Vol 2. (#2561).
عن نافع قال إن ابن عمر كان لا يقدم مكة إلا بات بذي طوى حتى يصبح ويغتسل ويصلي فيدخل مكة نهارا وإذا نفر منها مر بذي طوى وبات بها حتى يصبح ويذكر أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يفعل ذلك

[14] Reported as part of a long hadeeth in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, Kitaab al-Jamaa’ah wal-Imaamah (#655) and in Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab as-Salaah (#418).
ألا تحدثيني عن مرض رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم؟ قالت: بلى، ثقل النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال: (أصلى الناس). قلنا: لا، هم ينتظرونك، قال: (ضعوا لي ماء في المخضب).
قالت: ففعلنا، فاغتسل، فذهب لينوء فأغمي عليه، ثم أفاق، فقال صلى الله عليه وسلم: (أصلى الناس). قلنا: لا، هم ينتظرونك يا رسول الله، قال: (ضعوا لي ماء في المخضب).
قالت: فقعد فاغتسل

[15] Reported with the following wording in Sunan Abi Daawuud 1/80 (#297). Shaykh al-Albaanee رحمه الله says with a Saheeh isnaad.
في المستحاضة تدع الصلاة أيام إقرائها ثم تغتسل وتصلي والوضوء عند كل صلاة

However, the following hadeeth is reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, Kitaab al-Hayd (#321) where Umm Habeebah was mustahaadah and the Prophetصلى الله عليه وسلم ordered her to perform ghusl whereby she performed ghusl for every salaah.
أن أم حبيبة استحضيت سبع سنين، فسألت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عن ذلك، فأمرها أن تغتسل، فقال: (هذا عرق). فكانت تغتسل لكل صلاة.

[16] Reported in M’ajam at-Tabaraanee al-Kabeer. Shaykh al-Albaanee رحمه الله says Da’eef in Silsilah ad-Da’eefah 1/612 (#423).
من السنة أن لا يصلي الرجل بالتيمم إلا صلاة واحدة ثم يتيمم للصلاة الأخرى

[17] Reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, Kitaab at-tayammum (#331).
جاء رجل إلى عمر بن الخطاب فقال: إني أجنبت فلم أصب الماء، فقال عمار بن ياسر لعمر بن الخطاب: أما تذكر أنا كنا في سفر أنا وأنت، فأا أنت فلم تصل، وأما أنا فتمعكت فصليت، فذكرت ذلك للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: (إنما كان يكفيك هكذا). فضرب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بكفيه الأرض، ونفخ فيهما، ثم مسح بهما وجهه وكفيه

[18] Reported in Sunan Abi Daawuud 1/25 (#101) and Sunan ibn Maajah 1/140 (#398). Shaykh al-Albaanee رحمه الله says Saheeh in Saheeh al-Jaami’ as-Sagheer (#7514).
لا صلاة لمن لا وضوء له، ولا وضوء لمن لم يذكر اسم الله عليه

[19] Reported with the following wording by Haakim and at-Tabaraani. Shaykh al-Albaanee رحمه الله says Da’eef Jiddan (Very weak) in Da’eef al-Jaami (#2519).
التيمم ضربتان: ضربة للوجه، وضربة لليدين إلى المرفقين

[20] My interpretation of what the Shaykhحفظه الله said was that if one performed tayammum and prayed and then the time for the next salaah came in and water was obtained, then the individual must make wudū’ before performing salaah, as the acquiring of water nullifies the tayammum. And Allaah knows best.

[21] Reported in Sunan Abi Daawuud 1/93 (#338) Shaykh al-Albaanee رحمه الله says with a Saheeh isnaad.
خرج رجلان في سفرٍ فحضرت الصلاة وليس معهما ماء، فتيمما صعيداً طيِّباً فصليا، ثم وجدا الماء في الوقت، فأعاد أحدهما الصلاة والوضوء ولم يُعِدِ الآخر، ثم أتيا رسول اللّه صلى الله عليه وسلم فذكرا ذلك له، فقال للذي لم يعد: "أصبت السُّنَّة وأجزأتك صلاتك" وقال للذي توضأ وأعاد: لك الأجر مرَّتين

[22] Reported with the following wording in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, Kitaab at-tayammum (#328) and in Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab al-Masaajid wa Mawaad’i as-Salaah (#521).
أعطيت خمسا، لم يعطهن أحد قبلي: نصرت بالرعب مسيرة شهر، وجعلت لي الأرض مسجدا وطهورا، فأيما رجل من أمتي أدركته الصلاة فليصل، وأحلت لي المغانم ولم تحل لأحد قبلي، وأعطيت الشفاعة، وكان النبي يبعث إلى قومه خاصة، وبعثت إلى الناس عامة

[23] Reported with the following wording in Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab al-Masaajid wa Mawaad’i as-Salaah (#522).
فضلنا على الناس بثلاث: جعلت صفوفنا كصفوف الملائكة. وجعلت لنا الأرض كلها مسجدا. وجعلت تربتها لنا طهورا، إذا لم نجد الماء". وذكر خصلة أخرى